Arno Helmberg's HOMEPAGE

Materials for students in English (Lecture Notes):
-Heart and Circulation
-Renal pathophysiology
-Nutrition and Digestion
-Hepatic pathophysiology
-Bone Metabolism
-Pathophysiology of muscle

Materials for students in German (Skripten):
-Herz und Kreislauf
-Ernährung & Verdauung




These Lecture Notes are intended as a learning aid to accompany my lectures on pathophysiology for medical students at Innsbruck Medical University. For many years, I have been providing German versions. With increasing numbers of foreign students, e. g. in the European Union-sponsored Erasmus Programme, many of whom have a limited command of German, I have decided to also provide an English version. By doing this, I also hope to encourage German-speaking students to familiarize themselves with Medical English, the lingua franca of modern medicine. These Lecture Notes are my own direct translations of my German "Skript" originals. Aspects of the original may have been lost in translation or mistranslated, as I have no formal training in translation. Updates to the English versions will be made, if at all, later and less frequently than to the German versions. Facts like pharmaceutical names, regulatory (EMA) drug approvals, frequent allergens etc. are presented from an Austrian perspective.

Although these Lecture Notes were written with care and to the best of my knowledge, there is no explicit or implicit warranty regarding their contents. Medicine is a huge and rapidly evolving field. Contents of these Lecture Notes may be out-of-date, controversial or outright wrong. This is a purely educational text with no direct bearing on the practice of medicine. Nothing in these Lecture Notes should be interpreted or construed as an attempt to offer or render a medical opinion.

I make these Lecture Notes available strictly for personal use, and only directly from my web site; all rights are reserved. No part may be reproduced or passed on without my written prior permission. Corrections, constructive criticism and suggestions for improvement are welcome ( and highly appreciated!

Arno Helmberg










Last modified: 08.02.2020


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